The book of the job is one of the books of the Old Testament. In this book we see many theodicies. Defining the theodicy it is the spiritual justification of the goodness of God in relation to his power. It gives an explanation of his virtues and doings and tries to elucidate why He does and what He does. The core sacred vitality of the book of Job, and essentially of the Job itself is the fact that he was the only Biblical figure whose genuine character and innocence was not brought to question.
The story of the Job is that the God is boasting about Job, and commending his piety and respect, to Satan. Satan counters and gives reasons to God that it is only due to the fact that he is blessed with the respect and the wealth, reverence, protection and possessions. To prove his point, Satan asks God let him test the Job’s virtue and see if he curses the God for misgivings. The Satan asks the God to place him under his influence and power to test the man.
To this the God agreed, but under one condition that the Job himself will not be harmed at any cause. Once under Satan’s power, the Job loses everything, which he treasured, and which was close to his heart, but never curses God. Satan again took the permission for much harsher treatment, to which God agrees, with the condition that his life will not come under any danger. Satan pained him from head to toe. Then three of his friends came to console him of his loss and pain, and tried to figure out the reason behind the real cause of his sufferings.
The Theodicies along with the relative arguments of the Book of Job then can be found in the conversation among the three friends and the Job and in the verses of his wife as she told him that if he wants to relieve his pain, he should curse the God and die. She had a rather pessimistic view of the situation and was much frustrated from the endured sufferings. As she said to Job, "You still keep your integrity! Blaspheme God and die!" (2:9)
The Job however had a much deep faith in God and His doings. He cursed his wife instead for cursing God and replies in a much optimistic way that if people can take good things from the God, then it is His right to give bad things too, and one should not complain of any misgivings which are for a shorter term. The three friends, as discussed before, arrive and tried to sort things out giving opinions and ideas. There is a theme that people should comfort and console other people after bad things happen, regardless of the cause.
Maybe God wants us to do this as tragedy brings sympathizers, friends and acquaintances together. One of the friends, Eliphaz, made a suggestion of confessing to God and asking for his apology, as he might have done something very wrong and evil, for which he is being punished. To his reply job asserts that he did nothing wrong and proclaims his innocence, and he does not deserve any kind of sufferings and punishments.
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Another friend of the Job, Bildad, then says that he truly believes that what ever the God does is for a cause, which is always for the righteousness. Job opposed this thought with his own philosophy on God. He says that he knows very little about God, and he is not in a position so as to explain anything that God does. God depicts the marvels of creation, describing those things that completely surpass human logic and understanding. God can think of more things in a split second than a human being can do in a lifetime. However, Job has faith in God and His deeds. The Job at this point realizes that the God has never given him a reason as to Job why he lost everything.
Zophar, the third friend, explained that as he was very pious and always attempted to do the right things, and has an attitude toward the sin and wrong doings, therefore, he was punished. There was a bust of long and heated debate among the friends and the Job, so loud and attracting, that the passers by came and joined in the conversation. On of them, the Elihu says that he has full faith in the God and he convinced of His absolute justice. He expresses his believes that the God punishes us to keep us submissive to Him, and that suffering and misery may come to us men as a warning against future sins. By hurting men with ill fortune and calamity, God hints them of infliction, which look for those who are evil and corrupt.
However, Job does not accept these opinions and kept on insisting of his innocence. He claims that he is getting an undeserved punishment, and Job asks whether God is just in carrying out the punishment, though he never loses faith in God or curses Him. At the end of the book, he is blessed by God with everything he lost and more because of his faith and fidelity, and God thongs out at Job's friends because they blamed Job. God then avowed Job as a righteous man, and told Job's friends to ask Job for granting pardon. God takes credit and pleasure in Job's doings and shows Job off to the angels.
The theodicies found in Job are variegated, but none satisfies the man who honestly believes in Him and His deeds. In the end Job is exalted for his faith. The book of Job is a phenomenal description of one man's endeavor to unleash the true meaning of God. The book also provides an answer to the challenge made by Satan. That there are people who will serve God even in hardship and unholy conditions, for God deserves our acclamation apart from the blessings He provides. With the book of Job one can learn how the virtuous should suffer, and how careful one should be in solacing the suffering. There must always be the acceptance of the fact that one can never fully understand God's working in our lives and in the world.
While theodicy, the justice of God, is a ponderous subject in the account of this righteous sufferer, Job never came to know the answer to the question of why God permits pain, suffering and evil in the world. He also did not get himself the explanation as to why the God made him suffer and dealt with him so harshly. The lesson is that God does not and need not justify His ways to men, even as He does not argue His pre-existence when Genesis introduces Him as the Creator. He is the one who created the world with the harsh facts of suffering and injustice. The Book of Job affirms that it’s only the God’s will to bless or curse the mankind. It’s His justice, and it’s the way He puts and disciplines the mankind.
The proverb in the Book of Job and the Job gives an insight into the “inner-canonical” colloquy on the theology of requital. The book of Job is an obverse blow on excessively naive requital theology. It gives that the principle of requital is not the only, or the most crucial, element at work in spiritual-human relations.